A vállalkozóképzés formái





teaching and learning models, entrepreneurial education, problem-based learning, project-based learning


The participation of many well-trained and highly skilled entrepreneurs in the social and economic life is an important and topical policy goal. In relation to this goal, the question arises how we can train entrepreneurs in higher education. This paper contributes to the discussion of this question. It aims to present how different teaching and learning models are utilised in entrepreneurial education. The supply model emphasises knowledge-transfer, the demand model focuses on students’ knowledge-construction, while the competence model facilitates students’ learning by the shaping of and adaptation to complex, professional situations. The second part discusses these models with regards to entrepreneurial education. Lastly, the paper touches upon the issue of how the different models might reinforce each other.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Gábor Király, Budapest Business School

Senior Research Associate


Al-Imarah, A. A., & Shields, R. (2019). MOOCs, disruptive innovation and the future of higher education: A conceptual analysis. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 56(3), 258-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2018.1443828

Ashwell, M. (2016). Business Simulation: Providing a Bridge between Academic Studies and the “Real World”, In Rooney, P. & Whitton, N. (Eds.), Game-Based Learning and the Power of Play: Exploring Evidence, Challenges and Future Directions (pp. 2-11). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Avramenko, A. (2012). Enhancing students' employability through business simulation. Education + Training, 54(5), 355-367. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400911211244669

Béchard, J. P. & Grégoire, D. (2005). Understanding teaching models in entrepreneurship for higher education. In P. Kÿro & C. Carrier (Eds.), The Dynamics of Learning Entrepreneurship in a Cross-Cultural University Context (pp. 104-134). Hämeenlinna: University of Tampere, Research Center for Vocational and Professional Center. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2005.16132536

Becker, S. A., Cummins, M., Davis, A., Freeman, A., Hall, C. G., & Ananthanarayanan, V. (2017). NMC horizon report: 2017 Higher Education Edition. Austin: The New Media Consortium.

Bell, J. R., Dearman, D. & Wilbanks, J. E. (2015). Evaluating the effects of a problem-based learning business planning course on student entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 18(1), 169-182.

Bellotti, F., Berta, R., De Gloria, A., Lavagnino, E., Dagnino, F., Ott, M., Romero, M., Usart, M. & Mayer, I. S. (2012). Designing a course for stimulating entrepreneurship in higher education through serious games. Procedia Computer Science, (15), 174-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.069

Bligh, D. A. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Blum, S. D. (2016). "I Love Learning; I Hate School": An Anthropology of College. New York: Cornell University Press.

Boh, W. F., De-Haan, U., & Strom, R. (2016). University technology transfer through entrepreneurship: faculty and students in spinoffs. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 41(4), 661-669. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-015-9399-6

Carrier, C. (2007). Strategies for teaching entrepreneurship: what else beyond lectures, case studies and business plans? In Fayolle, A. (Ed.) Handbook of Research in Entrepreneurship Education: A general perspective (pp. 143-159). Cheltenham & Northampton: Edward Elgar.

Copley, J. (2007). Audio and video podcasts of lectures for campus‐based students: production and evaluation of student use. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(4), 387-399. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703290701602805

Costin, Y., O'Brien, M. P., & Slattery, D. M. (2018). Using simulation to develop entrepreneurial skills and mindset: an exploratory case study. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 30(1), 136-145.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health, Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182-185. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801

Dong, J. J., Hwang, W. Y., Shadiev, R., & Chen, G. Y. (2017). Pausing the classroom lecture: The use of clickers to facilitate student engagement. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(2), 157-172. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417707617

Duckworth, A. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. New York: Scribner.

Dweck, C. (2017). Mindset: Changing the way you thin to fulfil your potential. London: Hachette UK.

Dwerryhouse, R. (2001). Real work in the 16-19 curriculum: AVCE business and young enterprise. Education + Training, 43(3), 153-162. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005460

Dym, C. L., Agogino, A. M., Eris, O., Frey, D. D., & Leifer, L. J. (2005). Engineering design thinking, teaching, and learning. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 103-120. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2005.tb00832.x

Ericsson, A. & Pool, R. (2016). Peak: Secrets from the new science of expertise. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Esmi K., Marzoughi R. & Torkzadeh J. (2015). Teaching learning methods of an entrepreneurship curriculum. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 3(4), 172-177.

EY (2016). The upside of disruption. Megatrends shaping 2016 and beyond. Ernst and Young.

Farkas, S., & Gubik, S. A. (2020). Vállalkozói elképzelések és aktivitás a Budapesti Gazdasági Egyetem hallgatói körében – Az elmúlt tíz év változásai. Multidiszciplináris kihívások, sokszínű válaszok, (1), 28-44. https://doi.org/10.33565/MKSV.2020.01.03

Fevolden, A. M., & Tømte, C. E. (2015). How information and communication technology is shaping higher education. In Huisman. J., de Boer, H., Dill, D. D., & Souto-Otero, M. (Eds.) The Palgrave international handbook of higher education policy and governance (pp. 342-358). London: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-45617-5_19

Fox, J., Pittaway, L., & Uzuegbunam, I. (2018). Simulations in Entrepreneurship Education: Serious Games and Learning Through Play. Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy, 1(1), 61-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515127417737285

Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410-8415. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1319030111

Gál, T., Katonáné Kovács, J., & Árváné Ványi, G. (2017). Egy innovatív, finn vállalkozói képzés módszertani eszközeinek elemző értékelése és európai térnyerésének bemutatása. Vezetéstudomány, 48(8-9), 78-88. https://doi.org/10.14267/ VEZTUD.2017.09.08

Gee, J. P. (2005). Learning by design: Good video games as learning machines. E-learning and Digital Media, 2(1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.2304/elea.2005.2.1.5

Gubik S. A. (2013). A magyar hallgatók vállalkozásindító szándékát befolyásoló tényezők modellje: Ajzen tervezett magatartáselméletének kiterjesztése. Vezetéstudomány, 44(7-8), 18-29.

Guerrero, J. P. S., de los Ríos Carmenado, I., & González, M. L. (2017). Management of Entrepreneurship Projects from Project‐Based Learning: Coworking StartUPS Project at Universidad Politécnica Salesiana (Salesian Polytechnic University), Ecuador. In Moya, B. L., Storch de Gracia, M., D., & Mazadiego, L. F. (Eds.), Case Study of Innovative Projects – Successful Real Cases. InTech Open. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68492

Hammershøj, L. G. (2019). The Perfect Storm Scenario for the University: Diagnosing Converging Tendencies in Higher Education. Futures, 111(Aug), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2018.06.001

Harms, R. (2015). Self-regulated learning, team learning and project performance in entrepreneurship education: Learning in a lean startup environment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 100(Nov), 21-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.02.007

Harrington, C., & Zakrajsek, T. (2017). Dynamic Lecturing: Research-based Strategies to Enhance Lecture Effectiveness. Stylus Publishing.

Henderson, M., Selwyn, N., & Aston, R. (2017). What works and why? Student perceptions of ‘useful’ digital technology in university teaching and learning. Studies in Higher Education, 42(8), 1567-1579. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2015.1007946

Jones, C., & English, J. (2004). A contemporary approach to entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 46(8/9) 416-423. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910410569533

Kinsella, G. K., Mahon, C., & Lillis, S. (2017). Using pre-lecture activities to enhance learner engagement in a large group setting. Active Learning in Higher Education, 18(3), 231-242. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417715205

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J. & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1

Koedinger, K. R., Kim, J., Jia, J. Z., McLaughlin, E. A., & Bier, N. L. (2015). Learning is not a spectator sport: Doing is better than watching for learning from a MOOC, Proceedings of the second (2015) ACM conference on learning@ scale, ACM, 111-120.

Krueger, N. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123-138. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00166.x

Krueger, N. (2015). Thematic paper on entrepreneurial education in practice. Part1: The entrepreneurial mindset. OECD-EC.

Kurczewska, A. (2016). Entrepreneurship Education. Built Upon the Concepts of Experience and Responsibility. Łódź: Łódź University Press.

La Guardia, D., Gentile, M., Dal Grande, V., Ottaviano, S., & Allegra, M. (2014). A game based learning model for entrepreneurship education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 195-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.05.034

Lackéus, M. (2015). Entrepreneurship in education: What, why, when, how. Background Paper. OECD-EC.

Lackéus, M., & Williams-Middleton, K. (2015). Venture creation programs: bridging entrepreneurship education and technology transfer. Education + Training, 57(1), 48-73. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-02-2013-0013

Liu, L., Mynderse, J. A., Gerhart, A. L., & Arslan, S. (2015). Fostering the entrepreneurial mindset in the junior and senior mechanical engineering curriculum with a multi-course problem-based learning experience, Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), IEEE, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1109/FIE.2015.7344040

Lukovszki, L. (2011). Vállalkozói személyiségjegyek – avagy mi teszi a vállalkozót? Vezetéstudomány, 42(11), 16-30.

Mason, C., & Arshed, N. (2013). Teaching entrepreneurship to university students through experiential learning: A case study. Industry and Higher Education, 27(6), 449-463. https://doi.org/10.5367/ihe.2013.0180

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer Instruction – a user’s manual. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

McDonald, S., Gertsen, F., Rosenstand, C. A. F., & Tollestrup, C. (2018). Promoting interdisciplinarity through an intensive entrepreneurship education postgraduate workshop. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 8(1), 41-55. https://doi.org/10.1108/HESWBL-10-2017-0076

Méda, D. (2016). The future of work: The meaning and value of work in Europe. ILO Research Paper 18, Geneva: ILO Publications.

Mihalkovné Szakács, K. (2014). Vállalkozási ismeretek oktatása vs. vállalkozói kompetenciák fejlesztése. Vezetéstudomány, 45(10), 49-57.

Nabi, G., Liñán, F., Fayolle, A., Krueger, N., & Walmsley, A. (2017). The impact of entrepreneurship education in higher education: A systematic review and research agenda. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(2), 277-299. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2015.0026

NIRAS-FORA-ECON (2008). Survey of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education in Europe, Main report, 2008. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/docsroom/documents/8973/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native

Oganisjana, K. (2015). Promotion of university students’ collaborative skills in open innovation environment. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 1(18), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-015-0021-9

Oganisjana, K., & Laizans, T. (2015). Opportunityoriented problem-based learning for enhancing entrepreneurship of university students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 213, 135-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.416

Ollila, S., & Williams-Middleton, K. (2011). The venture creation approach: integrating entrepreneurial education and incubation at the university. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 13(2), 161-178. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEIM.2011.038857

Panoutsopoulos, H., Lykourentzou, M. A., & Sampson, D. G. (2011). Business simulation games as digital tools for supporting school entrepreneurship education. Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT), 2011 11th IEEE International Conference, IEEE, 155-156. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2011.51

Pitt, R., Friedl, C., Jansen, D. & Driha, O. (2017). The MOOC potential to address European challenges in CPD and continuous education. In Ubachs, G. & Konings, L. (Eds.), Higher Education for the Future: Accelerating and Strengthening Innovation, EADTU Conference Proceedings / The Online, Open and Flexible Higher Education Conference (pp. 369–380). The Open University.

Pittaway, L., & Cope, J. (2007). Simulating entrepreneurial learning: Integrating experiential and collaborative approaches to learning. Management Learning, 38(2), 211-233. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350507607075776

Prince, M. J., & Felder, R. M. (2006). Inductive teaching and learning methods: Definitions, comparisons, and research bases. Journal of Engineering Education, 95(2), 123-138. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2006.tb00884.x

Rae, D., & Melton, D. E. (2007). Developing an entrepreneurial mindset in US engineering education: an international view of the KEEN project. The Journal of Engineering Entrepreneurship, 7(3), 1-17.

San Tan, S., & Ng, C. F. (2006). A problem-based learning approach to entrepreneurship education. Education + Training, 48(6), 416-428. https://doi.org/10.1108/00400910610692606

Scharmer, C. O., & Käufer, K. (2000). Universities as the birthplace for the entrepreneuring human being. Reflections: The SoL Journal on Knowledge, Learning and Change, 1-19.

Schmidt, H. G., Wagener, S. L., Smeets, G. A. C. M., Keeming, L. M., & van der Molen, H. T. (2015). On the use and misuse of lectures in higher education. Health Professions Education, 1(1), 12-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hpe.2015.11.010

Schumpeter, J. A. (1980). A gazdasági fejlődés elmélete. Budapest: Közgazdasági és Jogi Könyvkiadó.

Shin, J. C. (2014a). The University as an Institution of Higher Learning: Evolution or Devolution? In Shin, J. C. & Teichler U., (Eds.), The future of the postmassified university at the crossroads (pp. 13-27). Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01523-1_2

Shin, J. C. (2014b). University Teaching: Redesigning the University as an Institution of Teaching. In Shin, J. C. & Teichler U., (Eds.), The future of the post-massified university at the crossroads (pp. 85-100). Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01523-1_7

Sidhu, I., Johnsson, C., Singer, K., & Suoranta, M. (2015). A Game-Based Method for Teaching Entrepreneurship, Applied Innovation Review, 1(1), 51-65.

Smith, K. A., Sheppard, S. D., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2005). Pedagogies of engagement: Classroombased practices. Journal of Engineering Education, 94(1), 87-101. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2005.tb00831.x

Swart, A. J. (2014). Using problem-based learning to stimulate entrepreneurial awareness among senior African undergraduate students. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 10(2), https://doi.org/10.1002/125-134. 10.12973/eurasia.2014.1023a

Tasi, P. & Zsigmond, Sz. (2014). A comparative study between a learning-by-doing based educational model and entrepreneurial skills. In ICERI2014 Proceedings 7th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation Seville, IATED.

Tóth Z. (2017). Egyetemi kurzusok hatékonyságnövelése a Mazur-féle „egymás tanítása” (peer instruction) módszerrel. Magyar Kémikusok Lapja, 72(4), 116-121.

Ungaretti, T., Thompson, K. R., Miller, A., & Peterson, T. O. (2015). Problem-based learning: Lessons from medical education and challenges for management education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 173-186. https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2013.0245

Volkmann, C. K., Bischoff, K. & Grünhagen, M. (2017). Insights for Entrepreneurship Educators, Education Managers, and University Leaders. In Volkmann, C. K. & Audretsch, D. B. (Eds.), Entrepreneurship Education at Universities (pp. 655-666). Springer Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55547-8

Willingham, D. T. (2010). Why Don't Students Like School? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Wilson, K. E. (2008). Entrepreneurship education in Europe. In Potter, J. (Ed.), Entrepreneurship and Higher Education (pp. 119-138), Paris: OECD.

Wilson, M. D., Holloway, E., & Gandhi, S. J. (2014). Entrepreneurship Education: Engineering a Pracademic Approach. In ASEE North Midwest Section Conference. https://doi.org/10.17077/aseenmw2014.1038

Zancul, E. D. S., Sousa-Zomer, T. T., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2017). Project-based learning approach: improvements of an undergraduate course in new product development. Production, 27, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6513.225216

Zemsky, R. (2014). With a MOOC MOOC here and a MOOC MOOC there, here a MOOC, there a MOOC, everywhere a MOOC MOOC. The Journal of General Education, 63(4), 237-243. https://doi.org/10.5325/jgeneeduc.63.4.0237




How to Cite

Király, G. (2020). A vállalkozóképzés formái. Vezetéstudomány / Budapest Management Review, 51(9), 44–53. https://doi.org/10.14267/VEZTUD.2020.09.04