Workplace spirituality and social enterprise

A review and research agenda

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14267/VEZTUD.2021.05.01

Keywords:

munkahelyi spiritualitás, társadalmi vállalkozás, proszociális indíttatás, értékteremtés, jóllét

Abstract

Workplace spirituality is a social movement about purposeful work that has both personal and broader societal considerations. Social enterprises are alternative organizational forms that strive to create value by simultaneously pursuing social, economic and environmental goals. Both workplace spirituality and social enterprise discourses have a value creation orientation for self and others, framed as serving and contributing towards the common good. However, only a few studies have addressed the relevance of workplace spirituality for social enterprises. Based on the literature for workplace spirituality and social enterprise, respectively, this paper argues that these phenomena have a common ground: prosocial motives, doing well (value creation) and being well (flourishing). Workplace spirituality can help preserve social enterprises’ integrity, while the social enterprise context can support the incorporation of workplace spirituality to generate positive outcomes. Further studies could explore this potentiality, and the present paper provides some future research suggestions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Natasha Gjorevska, Corvinus University of Budapest

PhD student

References

Aristotle (2014). Nicomachean ethics. (R. Crisp, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ashar, H., & Lane-Maher, M. (2004). Success and spirituality in the new business paradigm. Journal of Management Inquiry, 13(3), 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492604268218

Ashforth, B. E. & Pratt, M. G. (2003). Institutionalized spirituality: An oxymoron? In R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance (pp. 93–107). New York, NY: Sharpe.

Ashmos, D. P. & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1177/105649260092008

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1–22.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00107.x

Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801–823. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.003

Balog, A. M., Baker, L. T., & Walker, A. G. (2014). Religiosity and spirituality in entrepreneurship: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 11(2), 159–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2013.836127

Barney, J. B., Wicks, J., Otto S. C., & Pavlovich, K. (2015). Exploring transcendental leadership: a conversation. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 12(4), 290–304. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2015.1022794

Bell, E., & Taylor, S. (2003). The elevation of work: Pastoral power and the new age work ethic. Organization, 10(2), 329–349. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508403010002009

Benefiel, M. (2005). The second half of the journey: Spiritual leadership for organizational transformation. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 723–747. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.07.005

Bouckaert, L. & Zsolnai, L. (2012). Spirituality and business: An interdisciplinary overview. Society and Economy, 34(3), 489–514. https://doi.org/10.1556/socec.34.2012.3.8

Bull, M., & Ridley-Duff, R. (2019). Towards an appreciation of ethics in social enterprise business models. Journal of Business Ethics, 159(3), 619–634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-3794-5

Case, P., & Gosling, J. (2010). The spiritual organization: critical reflections on the instrumentality of workplace spirituality. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 7(4), 257–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2010.524727

Chalofsky, N. (2003). An emerging construct for meaningful work. Human Resource Development International, 6(1), 69–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/1367886022000016785

Chell, E., Spence, L. J., Perrini, F., & Harris, J. D. (2016). Social entrepreneurship and business ethics: Does social equal ethical? Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 619–625. 10.1007/s10551-014-2439-6

Dacin, M. T., Dacin, P. A., & Tracey, P. (2011). Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1203–1213. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1100.0620

Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2017). Fundamentals for an international typology of social enterprise models. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 28(6), 2469–2497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-017-9884-7

Dey, P., & Steyaert, C. (2010). The politics of narrating social entrepreneurship. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in The Global Economy, 4(1), 85–108. https://doi.org/10.1108/17506201011029528

Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work: Definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424–450. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011000008316430

Dolan, S. L., & Altman, Y. (2012). Managing by values: The leadership spirituality connection. People and Strategy, 35(4), 20–27.

Driscoll, C., McIsaac, E. M., & Wiebe, E. (2019). The material nature of spirituality in the small business workplace: From transcendent ethical values to immanent ethical actions. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 16(2), 155–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2019.1570474

Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2013). Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 428–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.06.006

Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(6), 693–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.09.001

Gjorevska, N. (2019). Workplace spirituality in social entrepreneurship: Motivation for serving the common good. In L. Bouckaert & S. van den Heuvel (Eds.), Servant leadership, social entrepreneurship and the will to serve (pp. 187–209). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29936-1_10

Grant, A. M., Christianson, M. K., & Price, R. H. (2007). Happiness, health, or relationships? Managerial practices and employee well-being tradeoffs. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 21(3), 51–63. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2007.26421238

Green, B. N., Johnson, C. D., & Adams, A. (2006). Writing narrative literature reviews for peer-reviewed journals: secrets of the trade. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 5(3), 101–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3467(07)60142-6

Guillén, M., Ferrero, I., & Hoffman, W. M. (2015). The neglected ethical and spiritual motivations in the workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), 803– 816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1985-7

Haskell, D. L., Haskell, J. H., & Pottenger, J. J. (2012). Harnessing values for impact beyond profit in MENA. In D. Jamali & Y. Sidani (Eds.), CSR in the Middle East (pp. 25–48). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137266200_3

Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Krishnakumar, S. (2016). The what, why, and how of spirituality in the workplace revisited: A 14-year update and extension. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 13(3), 177–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2016.1185292

Hudson, R. (2014). The question of theoretical foundations for the spirituality at work movement. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 11(1), 27–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2013.801031

Jurkiewicz, C. L. & Giacalone, R. A. (2004). A values framework for measuring the impact of workplace spirituality on organizational performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 49(2), 129–142.

Karakas, F. (2010). Spirituality and performance in organizations: A literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 89–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-009-0251-5

Karakas, F., & Sarigollu, E. (2013). The role of leadership in creating virtuous and compassionate organizations: Narratives of benevolent leadership in an Anatolian tiger. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(4), 663–678. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1691-5

Kauanui, S. K., Thomas, K. D., Rubens, A., & Sherman, C.L. (2010). Entrepreneurship and spirituality: A comparative analysis of entrepreneurs’ motivation. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 23(4), 621–635. https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2010.10593505

Kay, A., Roy, M. J., & Donaldson, C. (2016). Re-imagining social enterprise. Social Enterprise Journal, 12(2), 217–234. https://doi.org/10.1108/SEJ-05-2016-0018

Kociatkiewicz, J., Kostera, M., & Parker, M. (2020). The possibility of disalienated work: Being at home in alternative organizations. Human Relations, 2020(April), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726720916762

Koltko-Rivera, M. E. (2006). Rediscovering the later version of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Self-transcendence and opportunities for theory, research, and unification. Review of General Psychology, 10(4), 302–317. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.10.4.302

Korac-Kakabadse, N., Kouzmin, A., & Kakabadse, A. (2002). Spirituality and leadership praxis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 165–182. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940210423079

Krishnakumar, S., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The “what”, “why” and “how” of spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3), 153–164. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940210423060

Lavine, M., Bright, D., Powley, E. H., & Cameron, K. S. (2014). Exploring the generative potential between positive organizational scholarship and management, spirituality, and religion research. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 11(1), 6–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2013.801032

Lips-Wiersma, M., Dean, K. L., & Fornaciari, C. J. (2009). Theorizing the dark side of the workplace spirituality movement. Journal of Management Inquiry, 18(4), 288–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/1056492609339017

Long, B. S., & Driscoll, C. (2015). A discursive textscape of workplace spirituality. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(6), 948–969. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-12-2014-0236

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317904322915892

McGhee, P., & Grant, P. (2017). The transcendent influence of spirituality on ethical action in organizations. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 14(2), 160 –178. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2016.1268539

McKee, M. C., Mills, J. H., & Driscoll, C. (2008). Making sense of workplace spirituality: Towards a new methodology. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 5(2), 190–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766080809518699

Miller, T. L., Grimes, M. G., McMullen, J. S., & Vogus, T. J. (2012). Venturing for others with heart and head: How compassion encourages social entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 616–640. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2010.0456

Mitroff, I. I. (2003). Do not promote religion under the guise of spirituality. Organization, 10(2), 375–382. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508403010002011

Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A study of spirituality in the workplace. MIT Sloan Management Review, 40(4), 83–92. Retrieved from https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/a-study-of-spirituality-in-the-workplace/

Munoz, S. A., Farmer, J., Winterton, R., & Barraket, J. O. (2015). The social enterprise as a space of well-being: an exploratory case study. Social Enterprise Journal, 11(3), 281–302. https://doi.org/10.1108/SEJ-11-2014-0041

Oswick, C. (2009). Burgeoning workplace spirituality? A textual analysis of momentum and directions. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 6(1), 15–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766080802648615

Parker, M., Cheney, G., Fournier, V., & Land, C. (2014). The question of organization: A manifesto for alternatives. Ephemera: Theory and Politics in Organization, 14(4), 623–638.

Pawar, B. S. (2008). Two approaches to workplace spirituality facilitation: A comparison and implications. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(6), 544–567. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730810894195

Pawar, B. S. (2009). Some of the recent organizational behavior concepts as precursors to workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 88(2), 245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9961-3

Pearce, J. (1994). Enterprise with a social purpose. Town and Country Planning, 63, 84–85.

Pruzan, P. (2008). Spiritual-based leadership in business. Journal of Human Values, 14(2), 101–114. https://doi.org/10.1177/097168580801400202

Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655–687. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.07.003

Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335–351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1413-4

Sendjaya, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and measuring spiritual leadership in organizations. International Journal of Business and Information, 2(1), 104–126. https://doi.org/10.6702/ijbi.2007.2.1.5

Sheep, M. L. (2006). Nurturing the whole person: The ethics of workplace spirituality in a society of organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 66(4), 357–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-0014-5

Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leader focus. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(4), 349–361. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730410538671

Sullivan Mort, G., Weerawardena, J., & Carnegie, K. (2003). Social entrepreneurship: Towards conceptualization. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(1), 76–88. https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.202

Talmage, C. A., Bell, J., & Dragomir, G. (2019). Searching for a theory of dark social entrepreneurship. Social Enterprise Journal, 15(1), 131–155. https://doi.org/10.1108/SEJ-06-2018-0046

Teasdale, S. (2012). What’s in a name? Making sense of social enterprise discourses. Public Policy and Administration, 27(2), 99–119. https://doi.org/10.1177/0952076711401466

Tiba, S., van Rijnsoever, F. J., & Hekkert, M. P. (2019). Firms with benefits: A systematic review of responsible entrepreneurship and corporate social responsibility literature. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(2), 265–284. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1682

Tongo, C. I. (2016). Transcendent work motivation: biblical and secular ontologies. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 13(2), 117–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766086.2015.1086669

Ungvári-Zrínyi, I. (2014). Spirituality as motivation and perspective for a socially responsible entrepreneurship. World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 10(1), 4–15. https://doi.org/10.1504/WREMSD.2014.058049

Van Dierendonck, D., & Mohan, K. (2006). Some thoughts on spirituality and eudaimonic well-being. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 9(3), 227–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/13694670600615383

Vasconcelos, A. F. (2015). The spiritually-based organization: A theoretical review and its potential role in the third millennium. Cadernos Ebape, 13(1), 183–205. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395110386

Vasconcelos, A. F. (2018). Workplace spirituality: Empirical evidence revisited. Management Research Review, 41(7), 789–821. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-07-2017-0232

Waddock, S., & Steckler, E. (2013). Wisdom, spirituality, social entrepreneurs, and self-sustaining practices: What can we learn from difference makers?. In J. Neal (Ed.), Handbook of faith and spirituality in the workplace (pp. 285–301). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5233-1_18

Wills, E. (2009). Spirituality and subjective well-being: Evidences for a new domain in the personal well-being index. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(1), 49–69. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-007-9061-6

Zaidman, N. (2019). The incorporation of self-spirituality into Western organizations: A gender-based critique. Organization, 27(6), 858–881. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508419876068

Zsolnai, L. (2011). Moral agency and spiritual intelligence. In L. Bouckaert & L. Zsolnai (Eds.), Handbook of spirituality and business (pp. 42–48). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-14

How to Cite

Gjorevska, N. (2021). Workplace spirituality and social enterprise: A review and research agenda. Vezetéstudomány / Budapest Management Review, 52(5), 2–13. https://doi.org/10.14267/VEZTUD.2021.05.01

Issue

Section

Articles